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Contrast BFSU with NGSS (three parts)

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      Bernard Nebel
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      Introduction–Don’t expect a one to one correlation

      Appendix 2. BFSU in Relation to NGSS

      Building Foundations of Scientific Understanding (BFSU) was conceived and written with the purpose of providing teachers and homeschoolers with a “tool” that will aid in providing children with a solid foundation of scientific literacy. The scientific literacy sought here is a solid foundation of knowledge concerning basic ideas and concepts embracing and integrating all the major areas of science, plus the habits of mind, e.g., observation, questioning, and logical reasoning, that underlie the acquisition of scientific knowledge and technological development.

      A Framework for K-12 Science Education (Framework) and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were developed for the same purpose. Therefore, it is hardly coincidental that BFSU will serve teachers in bringing students toward mastery of the NGSS (K-8). Table A lists the NGSS for grades 3-5 and gives BFSU lesson(s) that apply to each. Table B lists BFSU lessons (for this volume, grades 3-5) and the NGS Standard(s) that each will support. (The same for grades K-2 may be found in
      BFSU, Vol. I, 2nd ed.)

      One will immediately notice that there is far from a one-to-one correspondence between NGSS and BFSU lessons. Some BFSU lessons address two or more NGSS; other BFSU lessons have no direct NGSS counterpart, and in some cases, two or more BFSU lessons may underlie a single NGS Standard. One will also note a lack of correspondence in suggested grade levels. In particular, one will find that the supporting lesson(s) for a number of grade 3-5 NGSS are to be found in BFSU, Vol. I, 2nd ed.

      Such discrepancies are a reflection of gaps and inconsistencies in NGSS, not BFSU. In particular, many of the grade 3-5 NGSS imply students having a background of knowledge and skills that previous standards did not seek to develop. For example, 4-ESS2-2,“Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features” calls for map-reading skills that previous standards make no reference to. In contrast, early (Volume I) BFSU lessons provide steps for systematic, step-wise development of map drawing and reading skills that extend to what this standard calls for.

      Guiding Principles and Dimensions set out by Framework are built into all BFSU lessons, as opposed to being specifics of NGSS. In short, BFSU goes beyond being a recipe for teaching to NGSS. The coverage, stepwise progressions, and teaching techniques advocated in BFSU are designed to have children gain a level of scientific literacy conceived by the authors of Framework, but are elusive if NGSS is used as the only guide.

      Matrix A
      NGSS and BFSU Lessons Applying to Each

      Physical Sciences

      3-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

      BFSU Lesson C-3A, Energy and Force (Vol. I) introduces students to the distinction between force—the strength of a push or pull—and energy. Children’s experience in work, play, and sport provides abundant evidence for the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of objects. Lessons C-5, Inertia, C-6, Friction, and C-7, Push Pushes Back (Vol. I) provide additional understanding as to how motion is influenced. With this background, students should have no problem achieving this standard. In Lessons A-15, Will It Sink or Float? and C-8, How Things Fly, students apply the concept of balanced and unbalanced forces to floating/sinking and flying/falling.

      3-PS2-2. Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

      BFSU Knowledge of the basic parameters that influence motion—provided by the same lessons as noted for 3-PS2-1—plus hands-on experience, will enable students to master this standard.

      3-PS2-3. Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.

      BFSU Lessons A-5A Magnets and Magnetic Fields (Vol. I) and C-13A, Electricity IA: Static Electricity, Sparks, and Lightning provide the context for students to accomplish this standard.

      3-PS2-4. Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

      BFSU Lesson A-5A Magnets and Magnetic Fields (Vol. I) provides the context for students to accomplish this standard.

      4-PS3-1. Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

      BFSU Lesson C-10 Movement Energy and Momentum provides the knowledge and understanding that students need to accomplish this standard.
      4-PS3-2. Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

      BFSU Lessons C-1 Concepts of Energy: Making Things Go, C-2 Sound, Vibrations, and Energy and C-3 Concepts of Energy II: Kinetic and Potential Energy and Flow of Energy will fully prepare students for meeting this standard.

      4-PS3-3. Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

      BFSU Lesson C-6 Friction and C-10 Movement Energy and Momentum will fully prepare students to accomplish this standard.

      4-PS3-4. Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

      BFSU The progression of Lessons from C-1 Concepts of Energy: Making Things Go (Vol. I) forward through Volume II will more than adequately prepare students for this standard.

      4-PS4-1. Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.

      BFSU Lesson C-10 Energy in Motion: Momentum and Waves will more than adequately prepare students for this standard.

      4-PS4-3. Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.

      BFSU Students may meet this standard by drawing in knowledge gained through Lessons C-2 Sound, Vibrations, and Energy (Vol. I), C-13 Electricity I Electric Circuits, Switches, Conductors and Non-conductors, and C-15 Light I: Basics of Light and Seeing.

      4-PS4-2. Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.

      BFSU Lesson C-15 Light I: Basics of Light and Seeing provides students with the information and concepts needed to accomplish this standard.

      5-PS1-1. Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.

      BFSU The concept that matter is made of particles too small to be seen is introduced in Lesson A-4 Matter I: Its Particulate Nature (Vol. I) and reinforced through many subsequent lessons, as it is the cornerstone for understanding a multitude of phenomena such as evaporation/condensation, dissolving/crystallization, diffusion, etc.
      5-PS1-2. Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.

      BFSU The progression of lessons from A-4 Matter I: Its Particulate Nature (Vol. I) through A-14 Concepts of Chemistry I: Elements and Compounds and beyond systematically build and instill the concept of conservation of matter. Lessons provide numerous opportunities for measuring and graphing.

      5-PS1-3. Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.

      BFSU Lesson A-5 Distinguishing Materials starts students on the path of identifying materials based on properties. Subsequent lessons provide increasingly sophisticated techniques.

      5-PS1-4. Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

      BFSU Lesson A-14 provides students with the information and experience to accomplish this standard.

      5-PS3-1. Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.

      BFSU Lessons B-3 Plant and Animal Kingdoms: Distinguishing Between Plants and Animals and B-5 Concept of Adaptation: Food Chains and Energy Flow more than adequately prepare students to accomplish this standard.

      5-PS2-1. Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

      BFSU Lesson D-1 Gravity I: The Earth’s Gravity; Horizontal and Vertical (Vol. I) and subsequent lessons in the D-Progression will more than adequately prepare students to meet this standard.

      Life Sciences

      3-LS2-1. Construct an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive.

      BFSU Lessons B-5 Concepts of Adaptation, Food Chains, and Energy Flow and B-5A Adaptations and Survival (Vol. I) provide both the basic concepts and specifics to enable students to achieve this standard.

      3-LS4-1. Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.

      BFSU Lesson D-11 A Uncovering the Earth’s Past and prerequisite lessons provide student with ample information and understanding to accomplish this standard.

      3-LS4-3. Construct an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

      BFSU Lessons B-4 Life Cycles and B-5A Adaptations and Survival (Vol. I) will give students the background and experience they need to address this standard.

      3-LS4-4. Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.

      BFSU Lesson B-5A Adaptations and Survival (Vol. I) will give students the background and experience they need to address this standard.

      3-LS1-1. Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.

      BFSU Lesson B-4 Life Cycles (Vol. I) provides students with the knowledge and understanding they need to achieve this standard.

      3-LS3-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.

      BFSU Lesson B-4B What Is a Species? (Vol. I) and associated experience will give students the background necessary to address this standard.

      3-LS3-2. Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.

      BFSU Observations and experience gained in the course of pursuing Lessons B-4B What Is a Species? and B-5 Concepts of Adaptations (Vol. I) will bring students to recognizing the extent and limitations to which traits can be influenced by the environment.

      3-LS4-2. Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.

      BFSU Lessons B-4 Life Cycles and B-5A Adaptations and Survival (Vol. I) provide students with the wherewithal to address this standard.

      4-LS1-1. Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

      BFSU Lesson B-3 Plant and Animal Kingdoms: Distinguishing Between Plants and Animals and following lessons in the “B” progression (Vol. I) will give students ample background for mastery of this standard.

      4-LS1-2. Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.

      BFSU Lesson B-8 How Animals Move III: Coordinating Body Movements; The Nervous System (Vol. I) provides the concepts that students will need for mastering this standard.

      5-LS1-1. Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.

      BFSU Lesson B-3 Plant and Animal Kingdoms: Distinguishing Between Plants and Animals (Vol. I) and subsequent lessons B-10 to B-12 provide more than enough information and experience to enable students to master this standard.

      5-LS2-1. Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.

      BFSU Lesson B-16. Fungi and Bacteria I: What They Are and Their Role as Decomposers in Nature (Introduction to Nature’s Great Cycle) and prerequisite lessons more than adequately prepare students to achieve this standard.

      Earth and Space Sciences

      3-ESS2-1. Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.

      BFSU Pursuit of Lesson D-6 Seasonal Changes and the Earth’s Orbit (Vol. I) will provide students with more than enough data that they can tabulate and graph in developing the ability to meet this standard.

      3-ESS2-2. Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions of the world.

      BFSU Students will get the general parameters for addressing this standard in Lesson D-4 Land Forms and Major Biomes of the Earth. Lesson D-13 Climate and Weather I: Wet Tropics and Dry Deserts specifically introduces students to finding and interpreting climate graphs for any desired part of the world.

      3-ESS3-1. Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impacts of a weather-related hazard.

      BFSU All students should be made aware of the particular weather-related or earth movement hazards of their region, and appropriate preparatory/precautionary measures that should or may be taken. The BFSU curriculum in general will provide knowledge and understanding sufficient to evaluate the merits of such measures.

      4-ESS3-1. Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.

      BFSU Lesson C-20 Production of Electricity and Its Problems and C-20 Nuclear Energy (both Vol. III) will prepare students for this standard.

      4-ESS1-1. Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.

      BFSU Lesson D-11A Uncovering the Earth’s Past leads students to identify evidence seen in rock formations and embedded fossils, and use such evidence in supporting an explantation of how the Earth’s topography and living things have changed over time.

      4-ESS2-1. Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.

      BFSU The wherewithal for guiding students accomplish this standard is included in Lesson D-11A Uncovering the Earth’s Past.

      4-ESS2-2. Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.

      BFSU Lessons D-3 Reading and Drawing Maps and D-3A North, East, South and West (Vol. I) provide students with the basics of maps and mapping skills–skills that can be extended to any level desired to enable them to achieve this standard. Lesson D-12 Mapping the Earth: Latitude and Longitude includes utilizing latitude and longitude.

      4-ESS3-2. Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.

      BFSU All students should be made aware of the particular weather-related or earth movement hazards of their region, and appropriate preparatory/adaptive measures that should or may be taken. The breadth of the BFSU curriculum provides knowledge and understanding that will enable students compare such proposals including additional ideas of their own in terms of reducing potential impacts.

      5-ESS2-1. Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.

      BFSU The broad, in-depth coverage of the lessons in the BFSU curriculum through Volume II (grade 5) provides students with a plethora knowledge and concepts that they can readily use in fulfilling this standard.

      5-ESS2-2. Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.

      BFSU Numerous BFSU lessons provide opportunities to introduce and utilize graphing skills. The data for this standard can be easily gleaned from the Internet. More significantly, the parameters for understanding water-related issues in any particular region are given in Lesson D-10 The Water Cycle and Its Ramifications.

      5-ESS3-1. Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment.

      BFSU Many lessons in the BFSU curriculum call upon students to obtain and integrate information into broader understanding. Applying these skills to finding and evaluating how their local communities are addressing problems of conservation can be easily included.

      5-ESS1-1. Support an argument that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from Earth.

      BFSU Lesson D-15 (Vol. III) will prepare students for meeting this standard.

      5-ESS1-2. Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.

      BFSU Lessons D-2 Day and Night and the Earth’s Rotation, D-3A North, East, South, and West, and D-5 Time and the Earth’s Turning, (all Vol. I) provide the experiences of patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows. Lesson D-6 Seasonal Changes and the Earth’s Orbit (Vol. I) ) provides the basis for the seasonal appearance of certain stars in the night sky. Returning to these lessons and representing observations/data in graphical formats will prepare students for achieving this standard.

      Engineering and Technology

      3-5-ETS1-1. Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

      BFSU The broad, integrated coverage of the BFSU curriculum will provide students with the wherewithal to accomplish this standard.

      3-5-ETS1-2. Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

      BFSU The broad, integrated coverage of the BFSU curriculum will provide students with the wherewithal to accomplish this standard.

      3-5-ETS1-3. Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.

      BFSU The broad, integrated coverage of the BFSU curriculum will provide students with the wherewithal to accomplish this standard.

      Matrix B
      BFSU Lessons and NGSS that Each Supports

      BFSU: Progression A. Nature of Matter

      Lesson A-11. Atomic/Molecular Motion I: Evidence From Brownian Motion and Diffusion

      Students, have been well familiarized with the particulate nature of matter
      through earlier lessons in this progression. Here, they make observations revealing that the particles (atoms and molecules) are in constant motion, an observation that is basic to understanding the cause behind diffusion and many other observed chemical-physical phenomena. In addition to giving further evidence for NGSS 5-PS1-1, it provides a critical first step toward MS-PS1-4 and MS-PS3-4.

      Lesson A-12. Atomic/Molecular Motion II: Relationship to Temperature

      Building on Lesson A-11, this lesson goes on to have students observe how atomic/molecular motion is related to temperature. This provides students with the wherewithal for NGSS MS-PS1-4 and MS-PS3-4.

      Lesson A-13. Atomic/Molecular Motion III: The Temperature-Pressure-Volume Relationship

      Further observations bring students to see that the increasing atomic/molecular motion that occurs with increasing temperature also causes an increase in volume. They thus see the entire temperature-pressure-volume relationship, a concept that is critical to many areas of science, engineering, and technology. NGSS do not bring this concept out as such, but MS-PS3-3 and MS-PS3-4 call for its application.

      Lesson A-14. Concepts of Chemistry I: Elements and Compounds

      In this lesson, students progress from their general understanding of the particulate nature of matter to understanding those particles as atoms and molecules. This brings them to comprehend the distinctions between elements and compounds, between atoms and molecules, and between mixtures and chemical reactions. The lesson provides the wherewithal for students to accomplish NGSS 5-PS1-4 and MS-PS1-1, and is foundational to their accomplishment of MS-PS1-2, MS-PS1-5, MS-PS1-6.

      Lesson A-15. Will It Sink or Float? Concept of Density and Its Measurement

      The concept of density and its measurement is foundational to countless areas of science, engineering, and technology, as it determines whether a substance or object will sink or float in a given liquid or gas. There are no NGSS that bring this very important concept to the fore.

      Lesson A-16. How Metal Ships Float and Making a Hydrometer

      This lesson expands on A-15 to answer a question of widespread curiosity, and provide insight regarding the phenomenon of buoyancy, which has widespread applications throughout science, engineering, and technology. There are no NGSS that highlight the concept of buoyancy.

      Lesson A-17. Heat, Volume and Density

      Expanding on the temperature-pressure-volume relationship (above lessons), this lesson brings students to appreciate the interplay between heat, volume, and density—an interplay that is central to understanding convection currents, refrigeration units, and numerous other phenomena of scientific and technological importance. There are no NGSS that draw attention to the heat-volume-density relationship.

      Lesson A-18. Convection Currents: Observation and Interpretation

      Students observe convection currents and use principles gained in Lesson A-17 to interpret how and why they occur as they do. The lesson provides insight as to how things as far wide-ranging as patterns of atmospheric, oceanic circulation, and the design of home heating systems depend on convection currents. Mention of convection currents is absent from NGSS, except insofar as they might be brought up in connection with transfer of heat energy (cf MS-PS3-3).

      BFSU: Progression B. Life Science

      Lesson B-13. Cells I: Microscopes, Observations of Tissues, and the Cell Theory

      The NGSS do not introduce cells until the middle school level at which time cell organelles, their functions, etc. are included in close order (MS-LS1-1, MS-LS1-2, and MS-LS1-3). This approach readily leads to overwhelm students and cause and confusion. In contrast, BFSU recognizes that students, by grades 3-4, are fully capable of using microscopes, and without burdensome detail, has them observe that biological tissues are comprised of cells of one shape/form or another according to the role they play in the whole organism. This provides them with the essence of the cell theory, the foundation they need before moving on to later lessons and the NGSS noted.

      Lesson B-14. Cells II: Cell Growth, Division, Differentiation, and Introduction to Reproduction

      Without resorting to details or technical terminology, students witness that each cell is derived from a pre-existing cell via a process of cell division, and in turn, grows and differentiates into a specialized cell according to its location in the body. They are introduced to the concept that reproduction is a specialized case of cell division and differentiation. This provides a conceptual foundation for MS-LS3-2 and HS-LS1-4.

      Lesson B-15. Cells III: Integrating Cells and Whole-Body Functions

      This lesson provides an overview of how differentiated cells make up the body’s organs and organ systems, which in turn, serve to nurture all the cells of the body, as well as enabling the body to function as a whole. The lesson provides a foundation for MS-LS1-3, MS-LS1-2, and MS-LS1-7.

      Lesson B-16. Fungi and Bacteria I: What They Are and Their Role as Decomposers in Nature (Introduction to Nature’s Great Cycle)

      With hands-on observations, students are guided to appreciate that fungi and bacteria comprise entire, unique kingdoms of organisms with the indispensable role as decomposers in nature’s great cycle. The lesson prepares students for 5-LS2-1 and lays the foundation for MS-LS1-6, MS-LS2-3, MS-LS2-2.

      Lesson B-17. Fungi and Bacteria II: Decomposers Versus Food Storage and Preservation; Commercial Uses of Fungi and Bacteria

      The implications that fungi and bacteria have for food preservation and storage is a practical and crucially important extension of their role as decomposers and deserves the attention that this lesson provides. There are no NGSS that address this area.

      Lesson B-18. Fungi and Bacteria III: Decomposers Versus Disease and Health

      The importance of observing that some fungi and bacteria are parasitic on plants and animals, hence causing disease, needs no argument. This lesson provides an entry way into this realm and makes students aware of the many personal and public health measures that are used to prevent the outbreak and spread of disease. There are no NGSS drawing attention to this arena.

      Lesson B-19. Microscopic Organisms I: Their Multitude and Diversity

      Collection and microscopic examination of pond-water samples leads students to gain an appreciation for the wide-spread presence and diversity of microorganisms. Students are introduced to features that enable them to distinguish between multi-celled and single-celled organisms (cf MS-LS1-1), and they are brought to recognize that such organisms provide a crucial link in the food chains of all ecosystems. NGSS do not address this arena.

      Lesson B-20. Microscopic Organisms II: Single-Celled Organisms; Kingdom Protista

      Examination of single-celled organisms leads students to recognize that such organisms are best classified as comprising another kingdom. They further find that such organisms display three basic modes of movement: cilia, flagella, and amoeboid, and that these modes of movement are displayed by certain cells of higher organisms including humans. There are no NGSS that draw attention to this arena.

      Lesson B-21. The Life of Plants I: Growing Plants for Fun, Food, and Learning

      In this lesson, students learn the basic parameters of growing vegetables of their choosing through hands-on experience. They are guided to appreciate that the same parameters apply to large-scale agriculture, and how civilization is entirely dependent on such endeavors. NGSS neglect this area.

      Lesson B-22. The Life of Plants II: How a Plant Grows Its Parts

      In addition to providing students with insight regarding plant growth, this lesson provides reinforcement regarding how the growth of large organisms is, nevertheless, derived from processes of cell growth, division, and differentiation.

      BFSU: Progression C. Physical Science, Engineering and Technology

      Lesson C-8. How Things Fly

      Beyond helping students comprehend the answer to a widespread question, this lesson provides a practical application contrasting balanced and unbalanced forces (cf 3-PS2-1 and 3-PS2-2). There are no NGSS that deal specifically with flying, despite its being paramount area of technology.

      Lesson C-9. Center of Gravity, Balance, and Wobbling Wheels

      Center of gravity is a critical consideration in interpreting and predicting the motion/movements of bodies, both animate and inanimate. This lesson provides students with hands-on experience of the concept, and its range of applications that pervade science, technology, and sports. Except as it may be addressed in connection with balanced and unbalanced forces (cf 3-PS2-1), NGSS do not call for comprehension of this topic.

      Lesson C-10. Energy in Motion: Momentum and Waves

      Here, students use their hands-on experiences to derive the concept that the energy of a moving object (movement energy) is proportional to both its speed and mass, and thus they derive the concept of momentum. Students also observe that energy is transmitted by waves, and they analyze waves in terms of amplitude and wavelength. The lesson will prepare students for NGSS 4-PS3-1, 4-PS3-3, 4-PS4-1, and lay a foundation for MS-PS2-1, MS-PS3-1, MS-PS3-5, and MS-PS4-1.
      Lesson C-11. Mechanics I. Levers and Discovery of the Underlying Principle

      With hands-on experimentation, students discover the basic principle that force times distance equals force times distance at the two ends of a lever. This principle is critical in the design and functioning of all mechanical devices and machinery, architecture of bridges and buildings, and in the functioning of vertebrate bodies. Despite this, there are no NGSS that bring this principle to the fore.

      Lesson C-12. Mechanics II. Inclined Planes, Pulleys, Gears, and Hydraulic Lifts

      In this lesson, students experimentally examine the efficacy of inclined planes, pulleys, gears, and hydraulic lifts and discover that the same force-times-distance-equals-force-times-distance principle applies giving further impetus to its importance throughout the fields of engineering and technology. There are no NGSS that call up this concept.

      Lesson C-13. Electricity I: Electric Circuits, Switches, Conductors and Non-Conductors

      By experimentation, students discover the basic pattern of electrical circuits, the function of switches, and the distinction between conductors and non-conductors. This provides the basic foundation they need for all further endeavors regarding electricity and its multitude of effects and uses. Despite its conspicuous importance in today’s world, there are no NGSS that call for this background.

      Lesson C-13A. Electricity IA: Static Electricity, Sparks, and Lightning

      This lesson brings students to integrate the common experiences of static electricity, sparks, and lightning into the context of electrical circuits (Lesson C-13). NGSS call for this understanding only indirectly as it is necessary for the accomplishment of 3-PS2-3 and MS-PS2-5.

      Lesson C-14. Electricity II: Parallel and Series Circuits, Short Circuits, Fuses, and Ground Wires

      Of extreme practical importance in every sort of electrical circuit and device is whether things are wired in series or in parallel. Through experimentation, students make this distinction and reason out the causes for the effects observed. The lesson also presents the dangers of short circuits and the safety roles of fuses and ground wires. Despite the conspicuous importance of this understanding, there are no NGSS that bring it to the fore.

      Lesson C-15. Light I: Basics of Light and Seeing

      Through hands-on experimentation, students conceive that light is comprised of different colors (wavelengths) of “rays” traveling from a source outward, and being differentially transmitted, reflected, or absorbed by objects along the way. The composite of rays entering our eyes is translated into our seeing. This prepares students for NGSS 4-PS4-2, speaks in part to 4-PS3-2, 4-PS4-3, and provides a foundation for MS-PS4-2

      BFSU: Progression D. Earth and Space Science

      Lesson D-9. Causes and Effects of Seasonal Changes

      In this lesson, students analyze and discover how seasonal changes, which they observed, recorded, and plotted in Lesson D-6, derive from the Earth maintaining its direction and degree of tilt as it orbits the sun, thus causing the hemispheres to receive differing amounts of sunlight, hence solar heating, throughou the year. Curiously, there are no NGSS that call for understanding of this basic phenomenon.

      Lesson D-10. The Water Cycle and Its Ramifications

      Students were introduced to the concept of the water cycle, as a logical extension of their observations of evaporation and condensation, in Lesson A-8. This lesson leads them to explore the multitude of pathways water may take, including serving human needs, on its way over and through the ground on its way between precipitation and evaporation. Students will draw on this knowledge for NGSS 5-ESS2-1, 5-ESS2-2, MS-ESS2-2, and MS-ESS2-4.

      Lesson D-11. Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Movements of Tectonic Plates

      Students model how a seismograph works and use data from the worldwide network of such instruments to uncover the concept of how the Earth’s crust consists of slowly shifting tectonic plates. The lesson takes them on to observe how various Earth features, e.g., mountain ranges and rift valleys result from such movements. The lesson provides a foundation for students’ mastery of NGSS MS-ESS2-2, and preparation for MS-ESS2-3.

      Lesson D-11A. Uncovering the Earth’s Past

      By considering and actually measuring rates of weathering/erosion and using observations of rock formations to estimate amounts of erosion that have occurred, students calculate time spans of the Earth’s history. They go on to correlate estimated amounts of erosion with deposits of sedimentary rock and correlate layers with epics of Earth history. Finding different sorts of fossils in successive layers, they uncover evidence for profound changes in the species of plants and animals that have inhabited the Earth over past ages. The lesson will be instrumental in preparing students for NGSS 3-LS4-1, 4-ESS1-1, 4-ESS2-1, 4-ESS2-2, and MS-LS4-1

      Lesson D-12. Mapping the Earth: Latitude and Longitude

      Locations on Earth are commonly designated by latitude and longitude. In this lesson students are guided to ascertain how these measurements are derived, and to find or designate locations accordingly. Despite the widespread use and importance of these measures, there are no NGSS that bring them to the fore.

      Lesson D-13. Climate and Weather I: Wet Tropics and Dry Deserts

      Using climate graphs to ascertain climates of various regions and applying the concept of convection currents gained from Lesson A-18 to a global scale, students derive the cause for high rainfall (supporting rainforests) occurring in equatorial regions and very low rainfall (resulting in deserts) occurring in subtropical regions. This lesson prepares students for NGSS 3-ESS2-2, and provides foundational material for MS-ESS2-5 and MS-ESS2-6.

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