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Elementary Science Education

BFSU Lessons and NGSS (K-2) met by each


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      Bernard Nebel

      Please reread the introductory statement of Matrix I.
      In perusing this Matrix 2, note the number of BFSU lessons that do not relate to any specific NGSS Standard. I will let you draw your own conclusion as to whether such lessons are a “waste,” or whether they show gaps in a curriculum base solely on NGSS. Likewise, note that some BFSU lessons relate to a considerable number of NGSS. Consider whether such cases represent missing BFSU lessons, or if they show redundancy in NGSS, i.e., different words to ask the same thing.

      MATRIX 2
      BFSU lessons and NGSS met by each

      Nature of Matter

      Lesson A/B-1. Organizing Things into Categories
      The habits of mind for organizing things and thoughts into categories is fundamental to all Practices and Crosscutting Concepts. By embarking students on this habit of mind this lesson is foundational to all NGSS.

      Lesson A-2. Solids, Liquids, and Gases and Change With Temperature
      This lesson conveys the concept that solids, liquids, and gases are different forms of the same thing—Matter. By giving basic characteristics of matter, it provides the basis for distinguishing matter and energy (Lesson C-1). Thus, this lesson presents a key principle of critical thinking; it is the starting point in the progression toward 2-PS1-1; it is foundational for 2-PS1-4, and it underlies other NGSS as well.

      Lesson A-3. Air Is a Substance and the Concept of the Atmosphere
      Having students recognize that air is a gaseous state of matter, as opposed to empty space, is a critical first stepping-stone toward understanding innumerable phenomena in all areas of science and everyday life. It is essential in the progression toward
      2-PS1-1, 2-PS1-4, and other higher-level standards.

      Lesson A-4. Matter I: Its Particulate Nature
      The particulate nature of matter and the distinction between solids, liquids, and gases depending on relative attraction among particles is a Core Concept underlying numerous areas of everyday life and all areas of science, especially chemistry. By guiding students in activities that make them cognoscente of this principle, this lesson provides a key to their critical thinking. It particularly pertains to the idea behind 2-PS1-3.

      Lesson A-5. Distinguishing Materials
      Pursuing this lesson with engaging activities will prepare them for mastering 2-PS1-1 and 2-PS1-2.

      Lesson A-5A. Magnets and Magnetic Fields
      By observing properties of magnets and magnetic fields, students gain another tool for distinguishing materials (2-PS1-1 and 2-PS1-2) and also an introduction to phenomena that are foundations for many higher-level NGSS. Lesson A-6. Matter II: Air Pressure, Vacuums, and the Earth’s Atmosphere
      Building on Lesson A-3 and utilizing A-4, this lesson guides students toward understanding the nature of the Earth’s atmosphere. This is a critical stepping-stone toward numerous NGSS concerning weather, climate, the water cycle, etc.

      Lesson A-7. Air: A Mixture of Gases (Mixtures and Chemical Reactions)
      From gaining the concept of the Earth’s atmosphere (A-6), this lesson guides students in making observations that show that air is a mixture of different gases. This becomes an essential building block in the progression toward a number of higher-level NGSS, especially those involving photosynthesis and/or respiration, or combustion.

      Lesson A-8. Matter III: Evaporation and Condensation; The Basis of the Water Cycle
      Evaporation and condensation are easily observed and understood on the basis of the particulate nature of matter (A-4) and how the fundamental particles of matter are affected by temperature. In turn, these phenomena are foundational in comprehending the water cycle, weather, and other events commonly observed in everyday life. It will be central in students’ mastery of K-PS3-1, K-PS3-2, 2-PS1-4, and numerous higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson A-9. Matter IV: Dissolving, Solutions, and Crystallization
      Students are guided to interpret observations of these common processes on the basis of the particulate nature of matter (A-4). These processes along with those revealed in A-8, are critical in the understanding of innumerable areas of science and everyday life. Hence, this lesson is essential in the progression toward many higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson A-10. Rocks, Minerals, Crystals, Dirt, and Soil
      By conducting observations, students ascertain the relationship among these items and discover how soil is derived from the weathering of rock. This is fundamental in students’ progress toward mastery of 2-ESS1-1 and 2-ESS2-1 and numerous higher-level NGSS.

      Life Science

      Lesson B-2. Distinguishing Living or Biological, Natural Earth, and Human-Made Things
      Students apply skills of organization (Lesson A/B-1) to categorizing everything in their surroundings as indicated. This is a basic first step into all areas of science and technology. It will be instrumental in their progression toward K-LS1-1, 1-LS1-1,
      2-LS4-l, K-ESS2-2, K-2ETS1-1, K-2ETS1-2, and others. Lesson B-3. The Plant and Animal Kingdoms: Distinguishing between Plants and Animals
      By making students cognizant of the fact that living things require a source of energy (Lesson C-1) and observing that the distinction between plants and animals lies in how they obtain energy, this lesson sets the stage for progression into all phases of plant and animal anatomy and physiology. It speaks directly to K-PS3-1, K-LS1-1, and 1-LS1-1 and provides knowledge for their achievement of 2-LS2-1 and K-ESS3-1 and numerous higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson B-4. Life Cycles
      By introducing students to the core concept of life cycles and that every living organism has its respective life cycle, this lesson, along with Lesson B-3, sets the stage for their progression into all aspects of anatomy, physiology, and ecology. The lesson will provide a solid foundation for their addressing NGSS: 1-LS1-2, 1LS3-1, 2-LS4-1, K-ESS2-2, K-ESS3-1, and K-ESS3-3.

      Lesson B-4A. Identification of Living Things and Why Plants and Animals Live Where They Do
      This lesson embarks students on what will be an ongoing practice of gaining familiarity with the flora and fauna of their region and more. Beyond providing a significant life experience in relating to the world around them, this provides a framework for numerous NGSS, especially K-LS1-1, K-ESS2-2, K-ESSS3-1, and

      Lesson B-4B. What Is a Species?
      Expanding on Lesson B-4 and B-4A, this lesson leads students to observe the fact that the principle of variation applies to all living things. Beyond providing reinforcement for their mastery of 1-LS3-1, the lesson lays a foundation for progression into numerous areas of the life sciences and higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson B-5 and B-5A. Concepts of Adaptations, Food Chains, and Energy Flow. Adaptations and Survival
      By guiding students to observe how plants and animals are adapted to both their physical environment and to each other, these two lessons provide a framework for their mastery of K-LS1-1, 1-LS1-1, 2-LS2-1, 2-LS2-2, 2-LS4-1, K-ESS2-2,
      K-ESS3-1, K-ESS3-3, and numerous higher-level standards

      Lessons B-6, B-7, B-8, and B-9. How Animals Move I, II, III, and IV
      These lessons lead students in a logical progression toward recognizing the huge diversity of organisms in the animal kingdom. Yet, they discover that despite the diversity, certain core principles of anatomy and physiology apply to them all, including humans. The principles revealed give students basic knowledge concerning the major organs of their bodies, how they function, and necessities for maintaining health. From the basic framework of understanding provided by these lessons, students can readily progress into any number of more sophisticated studies that may lead all the way to numerous careers in the health sciences. However, the current iteration of NGSS for the K-8 level lacks standards in this area.

      Lesson B-10. Plant Science I: Basic Plant Structure and Reproduction
      This lesson gives students a basic picture of a plant’s parts and the function(s) of each. This knowledge, along with that from other lessons, will be instrumental in their mastering 1-LS-1, 2-LS2-1, 2-LS2-2, 2-LS4-1, K-ESS2-2, K-ESS3-1, and higher-level NGSS. It will reinforce their grasp of K-PS3-1.

      Lesson B-11. Plant Science II: Germination, Seedling Growth and Responses
      Here, students discover that beyond the basics of germination, plants have means of sensing environmental parameters and adjusting their growth accordingly. This provides a foundation for further investigations that may lead all the way to professional careers. However there are no current elementary-level NGSS addressing this area of study.

      Lesson B-12. Plants, Soil, Water, and Erosion
      Whether it is for home gardening or professional agriculture, relationships between plants, soil, and water are at the base. This lesson provides that base and will prepare students for 2-LS2-1 and K-ESS3-3.

      Physical Science, Engineering and Technology

      Concepts revealed in this learning progression are instrumental in all technology and engineering.

      Lesson C-1. Concepts of Energy I: Making Things Go
      By drawing students reflect on what it takes to make things “go,” this lesson introduces them to the concept of energy and its forms. This is a Core Concept permeating all science and technology. It will be found to be fundamental in preparing students for K-PS3-1, K-PS3-2, 1-PS4-2, and 1-PS4-3. It sets the stage for progression into all further lessons in the C-learning progression. The concepts introduced are central to the B-learning progression as well.

      Lesson C-2. Sound, Vibrations, and Energy
      By leading students to the hands-on experience that vibrations produce sound and vice versa, this lesson prepares students for 1-PS4-1, 1-PS4-4, and more. It shows sound to be a special form of movement energy and provides for a progression into more sophisticated aspects of sound and its transmission.

      Lesson C-3 and C3A. Concepts of Energy II: Kinetic and Potential Energy and the Flow of Energy. Energy and Force
      Activities in these lessons lead students to make the distinction between kinetic and potential energy, and between force and energy. In the course of these activities, they will gain competence for K-PS2-1 and K-PS2-2. Beyond observing how force affects motion, they will ascertain the involvement of energy in motion.

      Lesson C-4. Concepts of Energy III: Distinguishing between Matter and Energy
      Misconceptions regarding the distinction between matter and energy are at the core of much confused thinking. By having students contrast characteristics and attributes of each, this lesson clarifies a Core Concept that is critical throughout all science and technology. Hence it underlies many NGSS.

      Lesson C-5, C-6, and C-7. Inertia. Friction. Push Pushes Back
      Hands-on activities and observations will familiarize students with these three phenomena and how they are expressions of energy and its flow. As these phenomena underlie all movements, they are core principles that come into play in all sciences, engineering and technology, and much of everyday life. They will be central in students’ thinking regarding all NGSS regarding movement/motion and they will reach far beyond.

      Earth and Space Science

      Lesson D-1. Gravity I: The Earth’s Gravity; Horizontal and Vertical
      Students use their experience of everything having weight and falling down to ascertain that there is a force, gravity, which pulls everything toward the center of the Earth. In turn, they observe that the force of gravity is influential in virtually all movements. This Core Idea has application throughout all sciences and everyday life. It is a key consideration in their pursuit of K-PS2-1 and K-PS2-2 and many higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson D-2. Day and Night and the Earth’s Rotation
      In this lesson students discern that their experience of day and night results from the Earth’s rotation. This is a Core Concept underlying all of Earth and space science. It is basic to their achievement of 1-ESS1-1 and higher-level NGSS concerning climate and weather.

      Lesson D-3 and D-3A. Reading and Drawing Maps. North, East, South, and West
      Reading and drawing maps is a basic skill that is essential in many areas of science and technology and it comes into play in countless aspects of everyday life. These lessons embark students on gaining those skills. They are immediately pertinent for students’ accomplishment of 2-ESS2-2 and 2-ES2-3 and they underlie many higher-level NGSS. Lesson D-4. Land Forms and Major Biomes of the Earth
      Reading and drawing maps (Lesson D-3 and D-3A) progresses to comprehension of world maps and relating them to the globe. In the course of such study, major land forms, e.g., mountain ranges and river systems, will be brought out. Likewise climatic regions, e.g., tropics to polar, and flora and fauna typical of each, become evident. This study will be central in preparing students for 2-LS4-1, K-ESS3-1, 2-ESS2-2, and 2-ESS2-3.

      Lesson D-5. Time and the Earth’s Turning
      This lesson presents the Core Concept of how our 24-hour day is based on the Earth’s rotation, which is a Core Idea underlying numerous areas of science and everyday life. Making sundials is included, giving students an avenue to K-2-ETS1-3.

      Lesson D-6. Seasonal Changes and the Earth’s Orbit
      This lesson embarks students on an activity of measuring daily temperature, day length, and precipitation, and correlating these with behaviors of local flora and fauna and with the progress of the Earth in its orbit around the sun. This ongoing activity will lead students to the insights they will use in achieving K-PS3-1, K-LS1-1,
      1-LS1-1, 1-LS1-2, 2-LS2-1, 2-LS2-2, 2-LS4-1, K-ESS2-1, K-ESS2-2, K-ESS3-1, K-ESS3-3, 1-ESS1-1, 1-ESS1-2, 2-ESS1-1, and higher-level NGSS.

      Lesson D-7. Gravity II: Rate of Fall; Weightlessness in Space, and Distinction between Mass and Weight
      Activities lead students to discover the Core Idea of how/why the phenomenon of weightlessness in space occurs and how it is related to being in orbit. The Core Idea of the distinction between weight and mass becomes clear in the process. This sets the stage for progression into numerous aspects of Earth and space science and the technology of putting satellites in space.

      Lesson D-8. Rocks and Fossils
      By observing erosion, students ascertain the origin of sedimentary rocks and embedded fossils. Evidence for vast amounts of erosion having occurred and amounts of sedimentary rock lead to the Core Idea of the Earth having a very long geological history, a conclusion supported by many other lines of evidence. Beyond preparing students for 2-ESS1-1 and 2-ESS2-1 this lesson provides for a progression into a plethora of more sophisticated studies.

      The “E” designation of the following lesson is to say that it fits into all four learning progressions.

      Lesson E-1. Resources: Developing an Overview
      By reflecting on what is required to produce anything they eat or use, students are brought to recognize that everything, directly or indirectly, depends on resources of land, soil, water, and air. Likewise, they are brought to recognize that human ingenuity, i.e., human resources, are entwined in every resource. This is a primary stepping-stone toward more sophisticated studies and underlies all areas of engineering and technology.

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